The hydraulic vane pump is a mechanical pump that converts mechanical energy into hydraulic power. It generates the energy flow with sufficient force to overcome the pressure caused by the load.
Types Of Hydraulic Vane Pumps
Hydraulic vane pumps are available in single and double chamber types with either a fixed or variable displacement design. Only single-chamber vane pumps have variable displacement capabilities with manipulatable screws to change the flow of fluids.
How Do Hydraulic Vane Pumps Work?
A hydraulic vane pump consists of a central rotor, which is turned by a drive shaft. There are several vanes mounted in the drive shaft. The vanes and rotor spin within a ring. With fixed displacement vane pumps, the ring is circular on the outside, but elliptically on the inside. Variable displacement pumps have a circular ring that is offset from the shaft through an adjuster as the output flow increases.
Both fixed and variable vane pumps operate similarly with the vane tips being pushed out to the ring by a centrifugal force, assisted by a pilot pressure or springs to the vanes’ base. When the vanes move out, it forms fluid-filled cavities. These cavities compress during the outlet phase to drive oil out of the pump.
Uses Of Hydraulic Vane Pumps
Hydraulic vane pumps are not often used in mobile equipment since they are sensitive to dirt and lose performance quickly with dirty fluids. Hydraulic vane pumps are not suitable for use with high-viscosity fluids or high-pressure activities. They are excellent at handling low viscosity liquids, including ammonia, alcohol, gasoline, and propane.
Tips For The Operation And Maintenance Of Hydraulic Vane Pumps
Bear these tips in mind for the operation and maintenance of hydraulic vane pumps:
- The tips of hydraulic vane pumps are sensitive and should be handled carefully. The vanes are subject to pressure and centrifugal forces, which could affect the tip of the pump. Vibrations, pressure peaks, or dirt can break the fluid film, affecting the hydraulic vane pump’s service life.
- The suction head pressures must never exceed the minimum specified by the manufacturers. When using a hydraulic vane pump, the tank suction line and pump casing should be pre-filled. It is essential to ensure that the installation has a positive suction head, but the pump should never self-prime. Any valve removal or circuit break will result in the fluid draining out of the pipes and into the reservoir, which will require re-priming pumps without positive pressure heads.